Wednesday 26th April, 16:30
1. Are Sustained Isometric Muscle Contractions Cognitively as well as Physically Demanding? A Pilot Study Using an Exoskeleton for the Lower Limbs
Bob Bridger, Institute of Naval Medicine
Twelve Royal Marines participated in a pilot trial of a passive lower limb exoskeleton. Participants stood for 5 minutes in a knee-straining posture in the laboratory while performing a cognitive task. The task was repeated on separate days with and without the exoskeleton. Performance was degraded when the knee straining posture was adopted. The cognitive task was rated as less frustrating when the exoskeleton was worn, less time pressure was experienced and the need to exert self-control was lower. There was no effect of the exoskeleton on error rates. Heart rate rose more slowly when the exoskeleton was worn and knee extension force dropped by 11% as opposed to 19% without the exoskeleton.
2. Surgery: can new Human Factors perspectives predict a safer future?
Tracey Rosell, University of Leicester
The Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC) was implemented in a large Acute Trust to improve patient safety. This study seeks to assess Human Factor influences that explain failure to comply with SSC and debriefing requirements. A survey administered to 143 NHS operating theatre personnel at three hospitals, measured compliance and perception of SSC and debriefing’s efficacy to promote patient safety and their effects on workflow. The existing psychological safety model was a less accurate predictor of compliance than perception of efficacy and education/training received. Organisational support demonstrated a significant relationship to compliance. Future modelling should include addressing systems barriers, training and psychological aspects including staff’s perception of efficacy.
3. Better Compliance through Better Medical Devices
Dan Jenkins, DCA Design International
Around half of patients take their drugs as prescribed. The reasons for this are multifaceted, thus a systemic view is required exploring opportunities across the patient journey, shaping the knowledge, skills and attitudes of the patient and stakeholders. Viewed systemically, it can be tempting to focus limited recourses on perceived quick-wins, such as training and SOPs. Products are often overlooked as being costly and difficult to change. This paper explores the role device design can play in shaping adherence levels.
4. Touch on the Flight Deck – Older Pilots Want to Learn New Tricks
Craig Allison, Transportation Research Group, University of Southampton
Touch screens are useful in “glass-cockpit” applications because they provide a means of direct interaction with a dynamic graphical display. Users can interact with dynamic information, including weather, radar and engine data, using a flexible user interface. Important flight data such as airspeed and altitude can be represented using digital displays in more space efficient and intuitive ways compared to analogue displays. Touch screens specifically, are useful in these applications, with the added advantage that pilots are able to interact with and manipulate data. Previous studies have shown that touch screens are faster to use than alternative input methods, including keyboard/mouse setups.
Touch screens offer numerous advantages within a flight scenario, both in terms of reducing pilots’ workload, but also as a space, weight and power saving tool, as numerous functionality can be integrated within one display. Within a flight scenario, it is clear that an increasing number of functions are being digitized; yet several items remain analogue, for example crew procedural checklist items following an emergency. The current study explores whether the experience levels of pilots (early career, mid career and late career; based on number of previous flying hours) influences interactions with novel cockpit technology. Specifically, this study explored whether pilots’ prior flying experience influenced the use of, and acceptance of a digitized checklist.
5. Giganomics: Ergonomics challenges for performing bands
Peter Buckle, Imperial College, London
This is the first paper to address the ergonomics/human factors concerns for the many bands entertaining small crowds at festivals, clubs and pubs. It has found, through interviews and expert assessment, that musicians are faced with a set of tasks that are complex and undertaken within physical systems that are usually poorly designed. The cognitive demands of performing are often substantial and made more complex by poor equipment design. This paper describes these and identifies human factors actions to resolve some of the challenges.
6. Optimal Ease Allowance of Flight Coveralls for Republic of Korea Air Force
Ah Lam Lee, Seoul National University
When designers make a garment, they face many issues. The most important and tricky one of those could be ease allowances which are determined by diverse factors such as purpose of garments, wearer’s activities and personal preferences. Daanen and Reffeltrath(2007) said that well-fitted garments which provide comfort and work efficiency to wearers have proper ease amount. It suggests that designers who want to make the garments with success should have the background knowledge about the garment wearers. In designing military garments especially, it requires more knowledges about the job because the wearers are doing special job missions which are far different from normal activities.
Korean fighter pilots are wearing a flight suit which was introduced by the US air force during the Korean war (Kim et al., 1997). The flight suit is an all-in-one trousers and shirts (so called coveralls), and it helps from quick donning/doffing to facilitating rescue in urgent situations. The pilots are wearing these flight coveralls not only as a functional garment when they are doing their unique task in the cockpit, but also as a normal duty uniform when they are working generally at the office (Lee et al., 2016). Therefore, when we design the flight coveralls, we should guarantee both good performance and well sized properties at once. In this study, we established a criterion of ease allowances for the flight coveralls investigating skin surface extensions during the task related postures and garment size preferences of current Korean fighter pilots.
7. Applying Human Factors within the Offshore Oil and Gas Industry – Clair Ridge Project
Calum Smith, Hu-Tech
The BP Clair Ridge Project is the second part of a phased development of the BP Clair field located on the UK Continental Shelf in the North Sea. The Project scope includes the provision of new production, accommodation and drilling facilities. Installation began in 2015, with the drilling and production platform installed in 2016.
Human Factors principles have been integrated from design through to commissioning. The overall objective has been to provide input to the design to enhance the operability, maintainability and safety of the Clair Ridge platform. This poster aims to outline the approach taken to apply Human Factors in practice within the lifecycle of the Clair Ridge Project, and focusses on hook-up, construction and commissioning as this has historically been an important but often overlooked phase of similar projects.
8. How are you using your smartphone or tablet? An observational tool
Thomas Winski, The Institute of Occupational Medicine
The last 30 years have seen major technological advances in computing technology. Many people now routinely carry computing power in their hands that would previously have occupied a room. This paper reports on an observational tool being developed as part of a study of the use of smartphones and tablets amongst workers in Singapore, and any associated health issues. The tool will allow an observer to make a quick visual posture assessment of a smartphone or tablet user.
9. What do pilots bring to the cockpit? More than meets the eye
Kirsten Revell, Transportation Research Group, University of Southampton
New technology provides new possibilities for how pilots interact. The introduction of touchscreens in the cockpit affords more options in the way information is presented to, and interacted by, crew (e.g. graphics, schematics, animations), than current offering where pilots flick a switch, or navigate menu’s via hardwired buttons and keyboards (e.g. Flight Management System). Increased digitization following the introduction of new technology is not sufficient for an improved experience for the pilot. The choices made in the design of information and interactions need to be considered carefully to avoid merely changing the nature of the problem. For a positive impact on usability, Norman urges designers to develop interfaces that allow users to see what is going on, what actions are possible, and the current state of the system, in a meaningful way. Manktelow and Jones proposes that good design should lead to a “single, coherent, and plausible mental model”. However, mental models are biased not only by the interface, but the experience of the user. A schematic interface was developed to support appropriate response to a hydraulic leak hazard. The design capitalised on the touchscreen display to promote a compatible mental model of system state and function. A small group case study was undertaken to explore variations in the mental models evoked by pilots of varying levels of experience, when interacting with a novel interface.
10. How does managing a formation of multiple unmanned vehicles impact operator performance?
Jaina Mistry, BAE Systems
The consequences of remote operation of Unmanned Combat Aircraft Vehicles (UCAVs) on human performance are not fully understood. Four military operational experts participated in an assessment managing a formation of UCAVs. Their performance was measured using HF tools for workload, SA, trust, error and allocation of function. The results showed that it was possible for a single operator to complete a mission whilst maintaining performance but that system transparency was a major factor in their trust of the UCAVs.
11. Data Collection Methodology to test the Operation and Display of Train Protection Systems (AWS/TPWS) through an ERTMS Driver Machine Interface
Charlotte Morrison, RSSB
As the European Rail Traffic Management System is implemented across Great Britain, older train protection systems will be displayed and operated via the new driver-machine-interface. The application of a human factors approach, to promote consistency and intuitive operation, aims to make the coexistent operation of these systems as simple and safe as possible. 20 participants completed 20 scenarios on a purpose-built train-simulator to evaluate the usability of proposed controls and icons on both a touchscreen and softkey DMI.
12. Rethinking primary school chair design – a human-centred perspective
Jackie Lightfoot, Studio93 Ltd
In this study, furniture design issues were explored within the real-world setting of a primary classroom using a human-centred design approach. Field research focused on primary school chairs and seated-postures of pupils in Year 1. Findings demonstrate that a typical school chair does not provide suitable, task-based support for many pupils in this phase of education and that this can be exacerbated if pupils of different sizes are expected to sit on the same sized chair in one particular way.
13. The Janus Track: A Conceptual Augmented-Virtual Reality Route Learning Aid for Novice Train Drivers in Australia
Anjum Naweed, Central Queensland University
Recent research indicates that we have been unable to accelerate driver training because the way trains and simulators display the operating environment is fundamentally different to the way drivers encode this information in their ‘mental model’ of the task. As a consequence, driver training may be unnecessarily long. Display tools that are congruent with a driver’s mental model of driving provide the opportunity to train drivers much faster. The project outlines in this poster will develop an innovative driver display tool that will accelerate the rate at which drivers develop a mental model and drive well. Such a tool will provide significant benefits to the local and international rail industry.